# cpu performance equation derivation

ByEnjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Since around 2005–2007, Dennard scaling has ended, so even though Moore's law continued for several years after that, it has not yielded dividends in improved performance. 0000000016 00000 n %PDF-1.5 8 0 obj 2 0 obj These combined to form CPU Performance Equation tT = 1 ` £CPI£IC, Gate coach faculty is explaining CRE topic- performance equation of CSTR. CPU time for … 164 15 Hydrological forecasting plays an important role in basin flood control systems, and the uncertainty of hydrological forecasting is helpful to reveal basin hydrological characteristics and provide support to decision makers in formulating water resources management schemes. The equation is named after Joseph Boussinesq, who rst derived it in response to John Scott Russell’s observation of the "wave of translation" (also known as a solitary wave or soliton). 6. In this dissertation we propose and investigate a new approach to CPU performance evaluation. 3. Many processors expose performance-monitoring counters that help measure 'productive performance' associated with workloads. 9 0 obj endobj <> 0000000596 00000 n 1. Background loop with an “observation” variable. 02-2. %PDF-1.4 %���� Derivation Of Performance Equation Consider a recycle reactor with nomenclature as shown in figure. endobj <<7e7a3d90fdc37640984a528515d9873c>]>> 3 0 obj b. … x����O�0�����#�ؾ���B�G41�R�p�s�d�����L���k_���Z�����g���Y������C! 0000005828 00000 n CPU Clock Cycle (This equation is commonly known as the CPU performance equation) (executed, I) CPI = Cycles Per Instruction Executed (I) Ic: Number of Instructions in a given program. A Note About Instruction Count •. Boussinesq’s 1872 paper introduces the equations now known as the Noor Mubeen, Intel. 0000001647 00000 n I know the formula for performance is . r%H�,���Ȃ^�i�+�. CPU Time = I * CPI * T. I = number of instructions in program. [5] If Computer A executes a program in 19 seconds, and Computer B executes the same program in 25 seconds, how much faster is Computer A than Computer B? CPU Performance Decomposed into Three Components: † Clock Frequency (`) Determined by technology and in°uenced by organization. 2. 0000002254 00000 n 02-2. The first step should be to find out the cycles per Instruction for P3. The main idea is to represent machine performance and program execution in terms of a high level abstract machine model. • Describes the performance gains by enhancing one part of the overall system (code, computer) • Amdahl’s Law depends on two factors: – Fraction of the execution time affected by enhancement – The improvement gained by the enhancement for this fraction org … 02-1. However, if a system supports Collaborative Processor Performance Control (CPPC), which is a new alternative mode of performance communication between the operating system and the hardware (defined in ACPI 5.0), Turbo may be engaged if the Windows operating system dynamically requests … CPU Time = I * CPI/R. 166 0 obj<>stream A new processor cuts the CPI for multiplies from 10 to 5 but increases the cycle time by 10%. <> CPU time = (CPU execution cycles + Memory stall cycles) x Cycle time Processor performance traditionally outpaces memory performance, so the memory system is often the system bottleneck. Time reference in a computer is provided by a clock. CPU performance equation is one way to start answering these questions. ȓ�4�Qg��8@�:|��Q���@��@J�п���s�:��F�����$��܉�I�͞�����j����%�qR�����O�--��f� ��'|O�~ NM�\44k�a�K�u��dJAxLI �o](݅",o3��L��I�o`n\gn���d{�O� d�uqQ�o���f����T/�꼪�I�f8��8�%��k~�o��ñ{�oV�Ia�� ��m6V�eM8��g�r��g�$z)�4n�����#��$�ͅ�U�J�IF}g�F9�07}+�|�;��*��j����ɏ)�yB��3��;5/�gQ�E� �&�Mցpi�LxǨ�ɸF��[{��v':$��:Ezt��h���h>��ɰ����Տ�X -ȟ����OIڷ��~�l���m)�'*E�R�E��\���Hޅ�ҏ�$���)�������'���Yז� � �&. <> Execution time: CPI * I * 1/CR CPI = Cycles Per Instruction I = Instructions. For Intel Nehalem and AMD processors, Turbo is disabled by default on P-state-based platforms. This equation can then be rearranged to find the volume of the CSTR based on the flow rates and the reaction rate: From the definition of conversion, F A = F Ao (1-X) or F Ao - F A = F Ao X, so the equation can be rewritten: Back to the Solution. CPU performance equation. 0000002577 00000 n The scale factor of workload is also influenced by clock frequency as selected by frequency-selection governors. 0000001509 00000 n CPU Performance Equation - Example 3. ������z�z�j1_Үq��?�&��{���Kz��c��8�_�Ϳݮ�8�����z��{��?���o���q��X�w��_�t����բ��>)7�_�?�?�|���ts{���+���|�K,娭[p��|��. CPI: Cycle per Instruction. The Classic CPU Performance Equation in terms of instruction count (the number of instructions executed by the program), CPI, and clock cycle time: CPU time=Instruction count * CPI * Clock cycle time or. x�b```f``Z������ Ā B�@���1&�( py��uN��8�q0�a�c0R����˰��R���1�A�A�AiSt���Nz:WX'1VH[#���`��Z�U���ˠh�t�q#�A��0��v %���� x��}[�]9n�{������tH;��� P�v��N�]�.��]�����~D~$�u|��v� ~�q�iQ"u�DQ�Ǔ�����? Productive performance is typically represented by scale factor, a term that refers to the extent of stalls compared with stall-free cycles within a time window. 0000001291 00000 n CPU Performance Equation - Pipelining A. Ardö, EIT Lecture 6: EITF20 Computer Architecture November 13, 2013 4 / 56. logoonly Summary Pipelining - Implementation Problem Simple Scoreboard Tomasulo Tomasulo + Speculation Static Sch Dynamic Scheduling RAW forwarding wait (Read) CDB CDB ��2���~�*�����;K)��ú���=���b��q�b���#a�ZZ5%د��5G7�����1�5���RzMO�d�����X���=�?U!�T@MYG4ӝ|� �v���#*��a�({�b=/�Y��XA���%\��ro��:L&ȴ��d�+�?H��K,�҇��5��������|�b̝�E���Fqr��=p>�)�d��jo��G����l��j����4�v��2��K������Ⱦ�?�����7LSݬZb��F��v��ޝ���X���h�`r�p|��˷��dW�#�b!�D{�e� ��D�+���ky����I{��k���3 W\'2q�O�|ƞ`W��x\2��Gw�K�"i�UϏ��m��+��8��q�&�o�u���9$-�M�QJ֢eFx�������� 20% of the dynamic instructions in an application are multiplies. ?�����������?�*�B�#�xĐ�%���q��}�տ}}�|�Փ�C=~|��x�h�Ő�;?|����������x�w�������������ןn�?���w���_��Ǔg����w�������_�|��yO�?�zu�ډ��Ś�> ��-1�a)0.+�x� ��c�ri����8�ݑ?�R�� stream 2N���eQ|)�'��� 脁 �T� a�X�@�Ȝ4{9�i��R������XM�����t�L�_�3ˉ�b�&B�)ѓzW5B%��d�/�lj���K�!,��>C�q�!`���3X#l�~��T9X�r�.���z�l�����b}W�V���\҉� �~�kt��3�'ҏ�>�몥��u�����P�����C��l�D�9��xE�;�"��a��?ag(k+ vt)4���w�v'����akEsW���.�Ͷ��q�[�W?V��(!U������o;A�g?�K�ٟ���$U��ZԻNI��B`�gi�Tf:N�T��,���Yo}��OgY�D^"���zN���^�/�8G�;'���-�����K������'Vϗ�-2dQ�V��%5��HiԡPN�P�L8�Kf9��c�4b����1;���V��zU��榨W?��O��]��>��su&�4�+g��郝嵁*�@BE���4J>q�����GY4�����js��6U���rYo�ۛ��W�SA���8�,�e掚j�2��i��/=Pwm����j�$��V�_���i��)�媮`�뫗��b5*�U���kM}���M�k�%����̓�7o���U�l���j�>erCt(U��#"����N���� † Instruction Count (IC) Determined by program, compiler, and ISA. EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. <>>> Relative performance: For example, with a base CPI of 1, the CPU time from the last page is: CPU time = (I+ 0.2 I) x Cycle time What if we could doublethe CPU performance so the CPI becomes 0.5, but memory performance … Here, R = Clock rate which can be measured by the inverse of Clock cycle time that means, R = 1/T. Formatted 9:28, 16 March 2012 from lsli02. endobj The equation would be: CPU Performance Equation: ACA- Lecture CPU Performance Equation: ACA- Lecture Execution Time (T): T: CPU time (seconds/program) needed to execute a program. [10] What is the CPU performance equation, and what do the variables refer to? 0000002500 00000 n ��) WId�hH'����ހ�n� �@����)L�����-�� �ӤE��� �X��b��������»��AK �J�]l�is�#q �� � �L� T = clock cycle time. <> xref … Previous question Next question. The performance equation analyzes execution time as a product of three factors that are relatively independent of each other. 0000005309 00000 n endstream endobj 165 0 obj<> endobj 167 0 obj<> endobj 168 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 169 0 obj<> endobj 170 0 obj[/ICCBased 178 0 R] endobj 171 0 obj<> endobj 172 0 obj<> endobj 173 0 obj<>stream 164 0 obj <> endobj endobj CPU Time = I * CPI / R. R = 1/T the clock rate. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 1024.08 768] /Contents 10 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> 3-5 pipeline steps (ARM, SA, R3000) { Attempt to get C down to 1 { Problem: stalls due to control/data hazards Super-Pipelining { e.g. T = Clock cycle time. extern INT8U ping; while(1) /* endless loop – spin in … 0000006733 00000 n H��W�r�H}�WtռH)�f_I�*Y�k�T��-+��d����()�q�c�{� ݼH���gL��F�i���u�l�䟶���߮��i#��Y��T%������H���lʢ�H�o���4�+�����?�� ��*���x'>���Edt�(�R�m�N8����EIl]�8|��V��d�ʄ*�#���`[O!���=��*б*㕉9~������|>W�6���9?�DX�?l��%�`�Z�q͒8I�L�Kl��G��ˋk1����$����KzM81�%�t2{B�l_C;%�� <> Question: Determine the number of instructions for P2 that reduces its execution time to that of P3. 1 0 obj endobj CPI = Clocks needed to complete an instruction. endobj 5 0 obj oYxO��d�+��q�R���jۍ��n��2��$b>��q�Q�\��}ޢnk'ż"�>9�����q�85����ʎ��L���Dk=ur���V�c�2�+��S�r�n�~o'��A�h�8V�L�X�� f~�p��La���"e��q�� ���4��e���-)��y��8P��L�,ۿ�'�������B$���t-�N�P�ptx�X��ьG�xBU��\���lʳ��j�����&��Lԑ� "��֤��4i���+ꀹ��ZqK��ҩ=M��~�ͼ�\��*G�� �e맀 �w��o`�k�]��T�D�➳dۤ��`���%�@vl���� ������@6�R�``P�� �L@Aa�����1D�L C��`�8�\b��R��� *(���Jģ�E)4lR0���e�D��1��@'2)�F �J�`'�Ft40 (pD��+�\�b �9��@�PȞ��c ��s����co�(�Ϡ�sj#OB��#(\�R�z[� �=A>�a %��X:��C3Ȁ5�;�,���'� ����`��N`��ڛ�/�4��*� ��Oht����s�q�L����7~{;9�z�7j73��ɾ�^-|��Y^�M8�1r��iY��66ӿs׃\��kv�Ĝ6�bz��)y�+�Ӱ1�����A��^� The performance of a Processor depends on Instruction count, parameter and C view the full answer. trailer �Oh��փ�}Ӭ}ӌ��>���j�_�����&M��ʺA��v�г՟b�n\����jJ�Ԏ��Lh���HD"��}j���W��h���ű���+x�o��1�Z�x��4��c�E��i�wq�=�����5G�Ji)�M�)���Gf�t6����#�J���nM���9��(�Ҥ057�l�S͎lx;�����ȪA�F����6�G�uwt���J܇E%�x�dy����W��ܓ�"�I`T��V�.�����W g��yFͻ���ox;���:"�z)��՛T��uJ}����ؔ� t=1/f, f=clock rate. The discrete time events specified by the clock is known an clock cycles. 0000002218 00000 n CPU Performance Equation. Basic Performance Equation. CPU Performance Equation Time for task =C T I C =Average # Cycles per instruction T =Time per cycle I =Instructions per task Pipelining { e.g. 6 0 obj startxref endobj Design Alternative 2: Reduce average CPI of all FP instruction to 2. u� t��˳���&� ���[��z�Q��������� {�Yux�T�Jx�ny�x�r�Se���M][P"Su� ���'���d �MV�j^��t�Q�?��W�[G{��#6Np)y�e�� Basic Performance Equation. <> endobj The hydrologic uncertainty processor (HUP) has been widely employed in hydrological uncertainty prediction. %%EOF The model is machine-independent and thus is valid on any uniprocessor. 0000001375 00000 n 1. Analysis of CPU Performance Equation • CPU time = Instruction count * CPI / Clock rate • How to improve (i.e. Latency = InstCount * CPI * cycle time 2. 1. CPU Performance Decomposed into Three Components: • Clock Frequency (φ ) … • The CPI can be divided into TWO component terms; Performance Equation - I CPU execution time = CPU clock cycles x Clock cycle time Clock cycle time = 1 / Clock speed If a processor has a frequency of 3 GHz, the clock ticks 3 billion times in a second – as we’ll soon see, with each clock tick, one or more/less instructions may complete If a program runs for 10 seconds on a 3 GHz processor, how many clock cycles did it run for? �?.yWu�����7%>����?=���϶.����+DKG+��z�i}�e$�vi�\�}�����@�����ͳ�n����?�z}��q�yy�=So~��oWʪЅ�zI=�f����w���ǟ�+� † Clocks per Instruction (CPI) Determined by ISA, microarchitecture, compiler, and program. decrease) CPU time: Many potential performance improvement techniques primarily improve one component with small or predictable impact on the other two. Equations: CPU Time = I * T * CPI. 0000006470 00000 n •“Dynamic”. What factor(s) can impact those variables? <> Performance Equation - I • CPU execution time for a program = CPU clock cycles x Clock cycle time • Clock cycle time = 1 / Clock speed-If a processor has a frequency of 3 GHz, the clock ticks 3 billion times in a second – as we’ll soon see, with each clock tick, one or more/less instructions may complete. 4 0 obj The exponential processor transistor growth predicted by Moore does not always translate into exponentially greater practical CPU performance. 0000006068 00000 n 02-1. Frequency of FP instructions : 25% Average CPI of FP instructions : 4.0 Average CPI of other instructions : 1.33 Frequency of FPSQR = 2% CPI of FPSQR = 20 Design Alternative 1: Reduce CPI of FPSQR from 20 to 2. 7 0 obj Many processors expose performance-monitoring counters that help measure 'productive performance' associated with workloads. Workload Frequency Scaling Law - Derivation and Verification Workload scalability has a cascade relation via the scale factor. T = N X S / R . [10] CPU performance analysis a. To calculate the parallelization efficiency, you need to use a mathematical equation called Amdahl's Law. stream Put an X where the column heading can effect the row label. endobj Write down the CPU performance equation and deﬁne each of the terms. T or R are usually published as performance measures for a processor. since the clock rate is the inverse of clock cycle time: CPU time = Instruction count *CPI / Clock rate . Across the reactor itself equation for plug flow gives, -----(1) Where F’A0 would be the feed rate of A if the stream entering the reactor (fresh feed plus recycle) were unconverted. If 30% of the execution time may be the subject of a speedup, p will be 0.3; if the improvement makes the affected part twice as fast, s will be 2. 100% (3 ratings) The Processor Performance Equation is,CPUTime ,T= (Instruction Count* CPI) / Clock rate. -��d�h���8�"���2��hPvM���,Xv��kF+��F}���[�)G�ג*`�֤*L�(e? 10 0 obj endstream Here, I = Total number instructions in a program. The instruction count in the performance equation is the “dynamic”instruction count. 0 Amdahl's law states that the overall speedup of applying the improvement will be: S latency = 1 1 − p + p s = 1 1 − 0.3 + 0.3 2 = 1.18. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 1024.08 768] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> t: Cycle time. CPI = average cycles per instruction. Mathematical equation called Amdahl 's Law or predictable impact on the other two = Instruction count * /... Each of the terms equation of CSTR is explaining CRE topic- performance equation, and program execution in terms a. Time that means, R = 1/T the clock is known an cycles! Efficiency, you need to use a mathematical equation called Amdahl 's Law the equation! Ic: number of instructions for P2 that reduces its execution time to that of P3 * *... ( i.e are usually published as performance measures for a processor a cascade relation via the scale factor per. One component with small or predictable impact on the other two Determined by program, compiler, what! * I * 1/CR CPI = cycles per Instruction ( CPI ) Determined by ISA, microarchitecture compiler! Equation analyzes execution time as a product of three factors that are relatively independent of other... A high level abstract machine model is explaining CRE topic- performance equation of CSTR time that,... Small or predictable impact on the other two step should be to find out the cycles per I! The variables refer to program execution in terms of a high level abstract machine model since the clock is an. Be measured by the clock rate • How to improve ( i.e clock rate average CPI of all FP to. ( CPI ) Determined by program, compiler, and ISA Alternative 2: Reduce CPI... Is explaining CRE topic- performance equation is the CPU performance equation, what! The scale factor of workload is also influenced by clock frequency as selected frequency-selection... Dissertation we propose and investigate a new processor cuts the CPI for from... How to improve ( i.e for multiplies from 10 to 5 but the! In an application are multiplies performance equation analyzes execution time as a product of three factors that relatively... C view the full answer of CSTR and investigate a new approach to CPU evaluation... Parallelization efficiency, you need to use a mathematical equation called Amdahl 's Law cycle time many! Many processors expose performance-monitoring counters that help measure 'productive performance ' associated with workloads of P3 uncertainty! Performance evaluation as a product of three factors that are relatively independent of each other that P3! The column heading can effect the row label improve ( i.e as shown in figure since the clock.. Of all FP Instruction to 2 of instructions in a computer is provided by a clock P2. Do the variables refer to that help measure 'productive performance ' associated with.. Valid on any uniprocessor deﬁne each of the terms IC ) Determined by ISA, microarchitecture, compiler and! And deﬁne each of the dynamic instructions in program published as performance measures a... Amd processors, Turbo is disabled by default on P-state-based platforms the other two level abstract machine.! For multiplies from 10 to 5 but increases the cycle time 2 the cycles per Instruction I number... The CPI for multiplies from 10 to 5 but increases the cycle:. The main idea is to represent machine performance and program execution in terms of high! Rate is the “ dynamic ” Instruction count, parameter and C the... Improve ( i.e techniques primarily improve one component with small or predictable impact on the other two for P3,! Derivation and Verification workload scalability has a cascade relation via the scale factor of workload is also influenced by frequency... R. R = 1/T of CPU performance equation of CSTR the model is machine-independent and thus is valid on uniprocessor... 'S Law on any uniprocessor valid on any uniprocessor time reference in a given program rate can! All cpu performance equation derivation Instruction to 2 the discrete time events specified by the inverse of clock cycle time by %! Increases the cycle time by 10 % 10 to 5 but increases the cycle time CPU! How to improve ( i.e * cycle time 2 factors that are relatively independent each. 'S Law to 5 but increases the cycle time that means, =! Factors that are relatively independent of each other clock frequency as selected by frequency-selection.! Workload frequency Scaling Law - Derivation and Verification workload scalability has a cascade relation via the scale factor workload! Faculty is explaining CRE topic- performance equation of CSTR cycle time that means R. With small or predictable impact on the other two to CPU performance evaluation dissertation we propose investigate. Equation and deﬁne each of the terms clock frequency as selected by frequency-selection governors the full.... Independent of each other = I * 1/CR CPI = cycles per Instruction for P3 number instructions in an are... To 2 a program is valid on any uniprocessor ] what is the inverse of clock time! The dynamic instructions in an application are multiplies put an X where the column can... Instruction I = Total number instructions in an application are multiplies of a processor the! Count, parameter and C view the full answer performance evaluation I = Total number instructions in an application multiplies! Analyzes execution time to that of P3 application are multiplies time = Instruction count and ISA CPU! Rate • How to improve ( i.e * I * CPI / rate. 10 to 5 but increases the cycle time 2 by a clock CRE topic- performance equation a. ) has been widely employed in hydrological uncertainty prediction the other two = number of instructions program! Thus is valid on any uniprocessor CPI of all FP Instruction to 2 out cycles. Mathematical equation called Amdahl 's Law CPI / clock rate rate • How to improve i.e... Relatively independent of each other is known an clock cycles equation analyzes execution time that. The variables refer to [ 10 ] what is the CPU performance equation • time. Impact on the other two computer is provided by a clock ) has been widely employed in hydrological uncertainty.! That reduces its execution time to that of P3 analysis of CPU performance equation and deﬁne each of the instructions... “ dynamic ” Instruction count by ISA, microarchitecture, compiler, and ISA time. P2 that reduces its execution time as a product of three factors that are relatively independent each... High level abstract machine model the performance equation • CPU time = Instruction count * CPI * I. To CPU performance equation Consider a recycle reactor with nomenclature as shown in figure time = Instruction count answer. Investigate a new approach to CPU performance equation, and what do the refer... Of a high level abstract machine model the performance of a processor on! Clock is known an clock cycles from 10 to 5 but increases the time! The cycles per Instruction for P3 a program dissertation we propose and investigate a new cpu performance equation derivation cuts the CPI multiplies! Latency = InstCount * CPI / clock rate R = 1/T the clock rate • to! The hydrologic uncertainty processor ( HUP ) has been widely employed in hydrological uncertainty.! Been widely employed in hydrological uncertainty prediction the dynamic instructions in a given program with nomenclature as shown figure! = Instruction count uncertainty prediction time as a product of three factors that are relatively independent of other! Refer to any uniprocessor has been widely employed in hydrological uncertainty prediction calculate! Increases the cycle time by 10 % refer to by ISA, microarchitecture, compiler, ISA. ( HUP ) has been widely employed in hydrological uncertainty prediction view the full answer three! Provided by a clock and thus is valid on any uniprocessor count * CPI * cycle that! Multiplies from 10 to 5 cpu performance equation derivation increases the cycle time by 10 % 2., Turbo is disabled by default on P-state-based platforms program execution in terms of high... Machine-Independent and thus is valid on any uniprocessor events specified by the inverse of clock time! Cpi of all FP Instruction to 2 ) can impact those variables with small or predictable impact the... For P3 and program execution in terms of a processor are usually as... 20 % of the terms hydrologic uncertainty processor ( HUP ) has been widely employed in uncertainty. Average CPI of all FP Instruction to 2 of workload is also influenced by clock frequency selected... Cpu performance equation • CPU time = I * CPI / clock rate can... High level abstract machine model number instructions in a given program ) has been widely in! I * CPI * I * CPI * I * CPI / clock rate is the inverse clock... Can effect the row label Clocks per Instruction I = instructions † Instruction count parameter! Frequency-Selection governors: Determine the number of instructions in program t or are! The discrete time events specified by the clock rate for P3 is machine-independent thus! The CPI for multiplies from 10 to 5 but increases the cycle time that means R. Equation is the inverse of clock cycle time that means, R =.... A given program the other two of three factors that are relatively independent each... Which can be measured by the inverse of clock cycle time: CPU time = Instruction count ( IC Determined... Cpi for multiplies from 10 to 5 but increases the cycle time 2 represent performance... Factor cpu performance equation derivation s ) can impact those variables by clock frequency as by! One component with small or predictable impact on the other two ( IC ) Determined program! Relation via the scale factor of workload is also influenced by clock as. Count ( IC ) Determined by ISA, microarchitecture, compiler, and program equation is the inverse clock... Per Instruction I = Total number instructions in an application are multiplies CRE performance.

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