80%, with the most prominent being lauric acid; therefore palm kernel oil belongs to the group of lauric oils. Palm fatty acid distillate or PFAD is one of the many waste and residue raw materials that we have in our portfolio.. However, palm kernel oil has a lower content of short-chain FA (C6:0−C10:0) and a slightly higher oleic (C18:1) acid content than coconut oil. The quality of the oil is excellent, with free fatty acids of the crude oil generally below 2%. 98 Min. ", Palm Oil - Production, Consumption, Exports, and Imports Statistics by Country, Blood on the Palms: Afro-Colombians fight new plantations, Indonesia Commodity and Derivatives Exchange, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Palm_kernel_oil&oldid=998862712, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2012, Pages using bar box without float left or float right, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 10:35. Palm kernel oil is similar to coconut oil in terms of composition, and is produced by mechanical extraction of the kernels which are pre-dried in palm oil mills through a partial vacuum process. Fats melting sharply just below mouth temperature leave a clean, cool, non-greasy sensation on the palate, impossible for any of the common non-lauric oils to match. the fatty acids composition of virgin coconut oil (VCO) and palm kernel oil (PKO), and the position of lauric acid in sn-2. The iodine, refraction and saponification indexes, the melting point and the unsaponifiable matter content were within the range considered to be normal. The Oil Palm, 3rd edn. Palm oil has a balanced fatty acid composition in which the level of saturated fatty acids is almost equal to that of the unsaturated fatty acids (Table 1.1). TAGs can be further divided into four component categories: trisaturated (SSS) TAGs, disaturated-monounsaturated (SSU) TAGs, monosaturated-diunsaturated (SUU) TAGs, and triunsaturated (UUU). The VCO used was VCO obtained from one of the Pharmacies store in Medan, and PKO from the Oil Processing Plant. The differences in TAG composition between olein with iodine value not exceeding 60 and those above 60 are detailed in Table 3.3. The main type of saturated fat found in palm oil is palmitic acid… However, it is unique among vegetable oils because a significant amount of the saturated fatty acids (10 to 16%) are in the sn-2 position of its triglycerides. A comparison was made with high quality oil from Malaysia. [13][14], Resembling coconut oil, palm kernel oil is packed with myristic and lauric fatty acids and therefore suitable for the manufacture of soaps, washing powders and personal care products. Iodine Value (% I2absorbed) 22 Max. Palm kernel oil (or in moderate climate, palm kernel fat) solidifies between 20 and 24°C and is highly saturated (Fig. Palm Oil : Production, Processing, Characterization and Uses, AOCS Press, 2012 Palm tree breeding, palm kernel stearin HPKS35 – Hydrogenated palm kernel oil carotenes,,. 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palm kernel oil fatty acid composition

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Other crystallisation inducers are diacylglycerols such as dipalmitoylglycerol. Oleic and linoleic acids from PKO goes into the liquid fraction (PKL) during fractionation while the more saturated fatty acids (lauric and myristic acids) go to the solid fraction (PKS). Palm Oil Commercial Specification and Quality, Follow Oil Palm Knowledge Base on WordPress.com. Kernel: Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) Basic Facts • Kernel per fruit: 5-8% • Mesocarp per Fruit: 85-92% • Oil per mesocarp: 20-50% • Oil per bunch: 23-25% Palm oil has a balanced ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. The behaviour of palm oil and palm kernel oil as the temperature is increased from 10°C is markedly different. Palm kernel oil, similarly to coconut oil, is high in saturated fats and is more saturated than palm oil. Its fatty acid breakdown is 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% monounsaturated fatty acids and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. PKS – Palm Kernel Stearin The major fraction of SFA consists of palmitic acid (44%). It is obtained as a condensate of volatile matters carried over from the deodorizer by the action of the stripping steam. Thus, palm kernel oil was found to contain capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and stearic acid. These carbon numbers represent the number of carbon atoms in the three acyl chains and exclude the glycerol carbon atoms. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. Figure 3.2 shows the products obtained from multiple fractionations of palm oil. Datasheet – Fatty acid composition-– Fatty acid composition of some common edible oils and fats – Fatty acid composition of palm oil, palm kernel oil and coconut oil. The oil can be easily separated into two products, palm olein and palm stearin. Fish oil in feeds for entire male and female pigs: changes in muscle fatty acid composition and stability of sensory quality. It is notable that diacylglycerols are preferentially distributed into the olein phase during fractionation. Palm oil, a semi-solid at ambient temperature (25–30°C), may be fractionated into a liquid fraction (olein) and a more solid fraction (stearin). "British Colonial Policies And The Oil Palm Industry In The Niger Delta Region Of Bayelsa, Nigeria, 1900–1960", "Table 01: Major Vegetable Oils: World Supply and Distribution (Commodity View)", Development of Palm Oil and Related Products in Malaysia and Indonesia, "Comparison of the effects of diets enriched in lauric, palmitic, or oleic acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy women and men", "What are the benefits of palm kernel oil? This composition results in an edible oil that is suitable for use in a variety of food applications. Palm oil had a fatty acid profile including palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic. Saturated TAGs such as PPP, MPP and PPS are the seeds of crystallisation. After hydrogenation, the shape of the melting curve is little changed, but it moves to a higher temperature by 4 or 5°C. Palm kernel stearin (the hard fraction obtained by allowing the oil to crystallise at a controlled temperature and separating off the liquid oil)) with the more liquid components removed, shows this sharp melting behaviour to a greater extent. [5] The Malaysian government also established Kolej Serdang, which became the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (UPM) in the 1970s to train agricultural and agroindustrial engineers and agribusiness graduates to conduct research in the field. Mesocarp: Palm Oil (PO) Shell. Author information: Download Full Issue. The TAG of palm oil consists of C46 to C56 molecules in a near normal distribution, the major TAGs being of C50 and C52. The palmitic acid content should be below 35%, preferably below 31%, for palm olein to remain clear at 10◦C. Pine Oil, Etc. It contains 40% oleic acid (monounsaturated fatty acid), 10% linoleic acid (polyunsaturated fatty acid), 45% palmitic acid and 5% stearic acid (saturated fatty acid). [1] It should not be confused with the other two edible oils derived from palm fruits: palm oil, extracted from the pulp of the oil palm fruit, and coconut oil, extracted from the kernel of the coconut.[2]. Palm oil contains approximately 44% palmitic acid (saturated), 5% stearic acid (saturated), 39% oleic acid (monounsaturated), and 10% linoleic acid (polyunsaturated). Porim was renamed Malaysian Palm Oil Board in 2000. Porim's scientists work in oil palm tree breeding, palm oil nutrition and potential oleochemical use. Another stearin, produced from a second fractionation of the olein, is called palm mid-fraction (Figure 3.2). It does not contain any cholesterol. Fatty acid is one of oleochemical products that can be obtained from palm kernel oil. The higher the iodine and saponification value, hence the higher the fatty acid composition can be found for higher extraction for oleochemical plant. 5. Palmitic acid, C16 (44–45%) and oleic acid, C18:1 (39–40%) are the major component acids along with linoleic acid, C18:2 (10–11%) and only a trace amount of linolenic acid, C18:3. HPKS35 – Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Stearin. Post navigation. Characteristics of Malaysian Palm Kernel and Its Products, Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol 25, 2013, Your email address will not be published. [clarification needed] B. C. Shekhar was appointed founder and chairman. [3], The USDA has published historical production figures for palm kernel oil for years beginning October 1 and ending September 30:[4]. The majority fatty acid found in palm kernel stearin is C12 which can be found in range of 54.8 to 64.0 wt%. Palm kernel oil is an edible plant oil derived from the kernel of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis. 2. A wide range of fractions with different properties to suit requirements of the food industry is available through dry fractionation. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. A cloud point of below 0◦C can only be obtained with an olein of iodine value above 70. 3. Triacylglycerol (TAG) Composition of Palm Kernel Oil. SSS TAGs provide structure, SSU TAGs provide both structure and lubricity, and the lower-melting unsaturated TAGs provide lubricity only. The oil can also be stored longer than other vegetable oils. Palm oil gradually increases in liquid oil content until it melts at about 36°C. These have higher levels of oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 43–49% and 10–15% respectively, resulting in iodine values of 60–67 and with lower cloud points of about 2–5°C. Hartley, C. W. S. (1988). By judging the amount of hydrogenation of the stearin carefully, an almost identical melting behaviour can be obtained, with applications in confectionery and other food uses. This outstanding property of lauric oils determines their use in the edible field and justifies their higher price compared with that of the other major oils. It should not be confused with the other two edible oils derived from palm fruits: palm oil, extracted from the pulp of the oil palm fruit, and coconut oil, extracted from the kernel of the coconut. In contrast PO has gradual melting characteristics. Every fat and oil possesses a natural FA distribution among the glycerides, which affects a product’s consistency as either a solid or a liquid. Analysis of the 2-position of the TAGs by pancreatic lipase hydrolysis reveals the fatty acids at this position to be mainly unsaturated (oleic). Indonesia and Malaysia. Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Wiley, 2005 Palm Kernel Fatty Acid Distillate or commonly known as PKFAD, is a processing residue from crude palm kernel oil (CPKO) refineries with a high amount of free fatty acids. Fatty acid composition (FA) of the oils was determined by modified acid-catalysed esterification and trans esterification of free fatty acids and glycerides, respectively, using Method Ce 1-62 of AOCS (1991). (1999). Coconut oil is the highest natural source of lauric acid. Palm oil, like all fats, is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol.Palm oil has an especially high concentration of saturated fat, specifically the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, to which it gives its name.Monounsaturated oleic acid is also a major constituent of palm oil. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. But this value is determined by the iodine and saponification value of the palm kernel. The low level of linoleic acid and virtual absence of linolenic acid make the oil relatively stable to oxidative deterioration. In addition to POO and PPO, palm stearin also predominantly contains PPP, a completely saturated TAG. Hence it is important that we have an understanding of the basics of the fatty acid composition and distribution of the fatty acids within the triglyceride molecules of palm oil. Acid Value (mg KOH/g) 254-260. This oil contains high C50 (POP) TAG (Table 3.6) and is utilised in manufacture of a cocoa butter equivalent. Approximately 80 mg of oil was dissolved in 1 mL of petroleum ether, followed by the The fatty acid compositions of palm oil are shown below. Fat Composition Analysis. Palm kernel oil is obtained from the palm fruit kernel and is a co-product of palm oil milling. experimentally carried out the FA compositions of seven vegetable oils, including palm oil and sunflower oil, and reported that while palm oil contains 40–47% palmitic acid and 36–44% oleic acid, sunflower oil is made up of 49–57% linoleic and 14–40% oleic acids. Palm kernel oil is an edible plant oil derived from the kernel of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis. Vegetable Oil in Food Technology, Blackwell Publishing, 2012 Fatty Acid Direct Production from Palm Kernel Oil . Palm kernel oil, which is semi-solid at room temperature, is more saturated than palm oil and comparable to coconut oil. Palm kernel oil is similar to coconut oil in terms of composition and is produced by mechanical extraction of the kernels which are pre dried in palm oil mills through a partial vacuum process. 4.101) with an iodine value of 13–23. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, U.K. Ang, Catharina Y. W., KeShun Liu, and Yao-Wen Huang, eds. CB – Cocoa Butter While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil … A more detailed profile of the TAGs is seen in Table 3.3. Lauric acid and its derivative monolaurin constitute around 50% of coconut fat-derived lipid.Palm oil, palm kernel oil, and coconut oil (the so-called tropical oils), while still considered vegetable “oils”, have as much or more saturated fatty acid. The TAG (triacylglyceride) profile of palm oil has been characterised by carbon-number gas. The kernel oil is similar to coconut oil (CNO) in physical properties such as light in colour, sharp melting point and high in lauric (C12:0) and myristic (C14:0) fatty acids. 4. Palm olein remains clear at ambient temperature of 25°C. Moisture,Impurities, Unsap (%) 2 Max. The use of high-pressure membrane filtration has helped to improve the quality of palm mid-fractions. Products of iodine value around 33–35, previously only available through solvent fractionation, can now be produced from dry fractionation processes. In palm kernel oil, the saturated fatty acid content accounts for almost 90% of the total fatty acids and the remaining 10% of the fatty acids are mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids. The same oil palm tree therefore produces 2 different types of oil with different properties and fatty acid compositions, but with the same botanical origin. Palmitic acid (44%-45%) and oleic acid (39%-40%) are the major component acids, with linoleic acid (10%-11%) and only a … Palm oil has a balanced fatty acid composition in which the level of saturated fatty acids is almost equal to that of the unsaturated fatty acids. Composition (%) PKO – Palm Kernel Oil It is the variations in the structure and number of carbons in these fatty acid chains that largely define the chemical and physical properties of palm oil. Your email address will not be published. Although linked through supply chains, palm oil and PFAD are different renewable raw materials: palm oil is a crop-based vegetable oil whereas PFAD is a processing residue derived from the refining of food-grade palm oil for the food and chemical industry uses. In palm oil, palm olein, and palm stearin, POO and POP (P, palmitic; O, oleic) account for up to 56% of the TAGs. This compares with a typical level of 26% for cocoa butter, which is the vegetable oil with the next highest palmitic fatty acid level. Composition. High concentrations of 1,3-dipalmitoylglycerol in crystals obtained from palm olein by tempering the olein through an alternating temperature cycle of 28◦C and 10◦C. [citation needed], Derivatives of palmitic acid were used in combination with naphtha during World War II to produce napalm (aluminum naphthenate and aluminum palmitate).[15]. In 1979 with support from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) and UPM, the government set up the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (Porim),[6] a public-and-private-coordinated institution. A schematic representation showing the hydrolysis of typical PO triglyceride. It is this heavy dominance of lauric acid that gives CNO and PKO their sharp melting properties, meaning hardness at room temperature (20◦C), combined with a low melting point (24–29◦C). The appreciable amounts of disaturated (POP and PPO) and monosaturated (POO, OPO and PLO) are apparent as high-melting and low-melting fractions in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms. Comparison of the fatty acid composition profiles for palm oil and palm kernel oil as shown in the table below. Composition and Properties The major fatty acids in palm kernel oil are about 48% lauric acid (C12), 16% myristic acid (C14) and 15% oleic acid (C18:1). R Tambun, D G Ferani, A Afrina, J A A Tambun, I A A Tarigan. European merchants trading with West Africa occasionally purchased palm oil for use in Europe, but palm kernel oil remained rare outside West Africa. Available data suggests that 100 g of palm kernel oil contains: 11.4% of monounsaturated fat, 1.6% of polyunsaturated fat, and 81.5% of saturated fat out of a total lipid of 100 g. The amount of trans fat is not available. The Chemistry of Oils and Fats, CRC Press, 2004 Palm oil is unique among vegetable oils in having a significant amount of saturated acids (10–15%) at the 2-position of its TAGs. Consequently, the improvement of palm oil quality for a higher degree of fatty acid unsaturation is one of the goals of oil palm breeders. Palm oil has a balanced fatty acid composition between SFAs (approximately 50%) and unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 39% and PUFA 10% mostly as LA). Palm oil has a balanced fatty acid composition in which the level of saturated fatty acids is almost equal to that of the unsaturated fatty acids (Table 1.1). PO – Palm Oil Eleven samples of crude oil palm kernel oil, from Bahia and Para States, were analysed in Brazil to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Padang Bulan, Medan 20155, Indonesia Email: rondang@usu.ac.id. Palmitic acid, C16 (44–45%) and oleic acid, C18:1 (39–40%) are the major component acids along with linoleic acid, C18:2 (10–11%) and only a trace amount of linolenic acid, C18:3. We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. Department. The ratio of POP/POO influences the crystallisation of palm oil as shown in Table 3.5. This stearin has a tripalmitoylglycerol (PPP) content of 60% and is used as hard stock for soft margarines and in infant fat formulas. [8] However, the raise in total cholesterol concentration is partly due to more HDL-C than LDL-C.[9] Palm kernel oil does not contain cholesterol or trans fatty acids. Cocoa butter is the only other natural fat with similar properties but it is very much an expensive speciality fat and is not included among the 17 major oils and fats in world trade. Researchers are only on the cusp of understanding how fatty acids work independently and in conjunction with other nutrients to impact our health. Wilfarin fatty acids are derived from both Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil and are produced from the splitting of fats at high temperature and pressure. Welding technology for good milling practice. Palm oil is rich in carotenoids pigments found in plants and animals from which it derives its deep red colour and the major component of its glycerides is the saturated fatty acid palmitic. [10][11], The approximate concentration of fatty acids (FAs) in palm kernel oil is as follows:[12], Splitting of oils and fats by hydrolysis, or under basic conditions saponification, yields fatty acids, with glycerin (glycerol) as a byproduct. Palm oil has high contents of disaturated (POP and PPO) and monosaturated (POO and OPO) TAGs. Hallenstvedt E(1), Kjos NP, Rehnberg AC, Overland M, Thomassen M. Author information: (1)Felleskjøpet Fôrutvikling, Bromstadveien 57, N-7005 Trondheim, Norway. Advances in crystalliser designs, cooling programs and filtration technology have enabled a wider range of stearins to be produced. [7] Palm kernel oil is high in lauric acid, which has been shown to raise blood cholesterol levels, both as LDL-C (cholesterol contained in low-density lipoprotein) and HDL-C (cholesterol contained in high-density lipoprotein). Leading Dealers & Suppliers Of All Types Of Edible & Non-Edible Oils & Fatty Acids Such As Palm Fatty Acid, Rice Bran Fatty Acid, Palm Kernel Fatty Acid, Coconut Oil, Mahuwa Oil, Ricebran Oil, Palmolin Oil, Karanjia Oil, Castor Oil, Tallow, Soybean Oil, Rapseed Oil, Sunflower Oil All Types Of Acids, Oils, H.C.O., Imported Soap Noodles, Stearic Acid, Turkey Red Oil (T.R.O.) The relative percentages of the fatty acids in olive oil were palmitoleic (1.2 +/- 0.5), palmitic (10.9 +/- 0.8), linoleic (0.6 +/- 0.1), linoleic (16.5 +/- 0.8), and oleic (70.5 +/- 1.2). The split-off fatty acids are a mixture ranging from C4 to C18, depending on the type of oil or fat. A higher concentration of diacylglycerols is found in more unsaturated oleins. Because of their low unsaturation, the lauric oils are also very stable to oxidation. Palm oil contains nonglyceridic contents including carotenes, tocopherols, tocotrienols, sterols, and squalene, which diminish after refinement. The olein contains higher levels of oleic (39–45%) and linoleic acids (10–13%) compared to the palm oil. As the iodine value increases, the cloud point decreases, though not linearly. The total fatty acid composition was measured by Gas Chromatography. ANATOMY OF OIL PALM FRUIT. Fatty Acid Composition of Palm Oil, Palm Oil Fractions and Palm Kernel Oil. [10], Palm kernel oil is commonly used in commercial cooking because it is lower in cost than other oils and remains stable at high cooking temperatures. elin.hallenstvedt@fkf.no The kernel oil is characterised by its high level of shorter and medium fatty acid chain lengths (C6–C14). Further fractionation of the olein produces a more unsaturated fraction, often called super-olein or double fractionated olein. Palm kernel oil, on the other hand, is still a hard solid at 25°C, but then melts very abruptly below 30°C. In contrast, oleins with IV of less than 60 have cloud point of 6–10°C. Fatty acid composition of palm oil and palm kernel oil. A much harder stearin is also available with as much as 79% palmitic acid. TAGs. Depending on customer requirements, they are available as broad cuts or purer fatty acids by simple or fractional distillation. Thus, in palm stearin, SSS and SSU constitute more than 75% of the total TAG. C36 is the most abundant TAG in PKO, mainly trilaurin (21%) due to high levels of the acid, followed by C38 (15%). Properties of Palm Oil. In the 1960s, research and development (R&D) in oil palm breeding began to expand after Malaysia's Department of Agriculture established an exchange program with West African economies and four private plantations formed the Oil Palm Genetics Laboratory. Required fields are marked *, 2. The fatty acid chains present in the palm oil triglycerides could vary in the number of carbons present in the chain (chain length) and in structure (presence of double bonds, i.e., unsaturation). Fractions with iodine above 70 and a cloud point of −4◦C are described as top-oleins. This olein can satisfy the cold test in which the oil must remain clear after 5.5 h at 0°C. Palm stearin, the harder fraction of palm oil, contains the more saturated fatty acids and TAGs. Abstract. palm oil in deep-fat frying methods has already been established [15]. 1. The fatty acid composition of the blends shows that, although palm kernel oil has a higher saturated fatty acid level (about 82%), the long chain saturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) are only 11% of the total fatty acids, whereas in palm oil these percentages exceed 47%. Solid Fat Content curve showing sharp melting behaviour for PKS from 25°C (SFC of 70%) to 35% (SFC of 0%). Oil from the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis has long been recognized in West African countries. Fatty acid distillation Concentration Refine Glycerin 99.7% USP C8–C10 Acid Fatty Acid Crude Glycerin C12-C18 Acid WATER First Step: Vegetable oil will be hydrolyzed into Fatty acids and Glycerin PKO = Palm Kernel Oil Palm oil and palm kernel oil are different in characteristic and properties even though they are derived from the same fruit. Fractionation of PKO yields Palm Kernel Olein (PKL) and Palm Kernel Stearin (PKS). Unrefined palm oil is a significant source of tocotrienol, part of the vitamin E family. Palm kernel oil, palm oil, and coconut oil are three of the few highly saturated vegetable fats; these oils give the name to the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid palmitic acid that they contain. “Palm oil” is extracted from the fruit pulp, while the kernel is used to extract “palm kernel oil”. It is also distinguished from other oils by a very high level of palmitic fatty acid (44%). The proportion of saturated fatty acids is >80%, with the most prominent being lauric acid; therefore palm kernel oil belongs to the group of lauric oils. Palm fatty acid distillate or PFAD is one of the many waste and residue raw materials that we have in our portfolio.. However, palm kernel oil has a lower content of short-chain FA (C6:0−C10:0) and a slightly higher oleic (C18:1) acid content than coconut oil. The quality of the oil is excellent, with free fatty acids of the crude oil generally below 2%. 98 Min. ", Palm Oil - Production, Consumption, Exports, and Imports Statistics by Country, Blood on the Palms: Afro-Colombians fight new plantations, Indonesia Commodity and Derivatives Exchange, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Palm_kernel_oil&oldid=998862712, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2012, Pages using bar box without float left or float right, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 10:35. Palm kernel oil is similar to coconut oil in terms of composition, and is produced by mechanical extraction of the kernels which are pre-dried in palm oil mills through a partial vacuum process. Fats melting sharply just below mouth temperature leave a clean, cool, non-greasy sensation on the palate, impossible for any of the common non-lauric oils to match. the fatty acids composition of virgin coconut oil (VCO) and palm kernel oil (PKO), and the position of lauric acid in sn-2. The iodine, refraction and saponification indexes, the melting point and the unsaponifiable matter content were within the range considered to be normal. The Oil Palm, 3rd edn. Palm oil has a balanced fatty acid composition in which the level of saturated fatty acids is almost equal to that of the unsaturated fatty acids (Table 1.1). TAGs can be further divided into four component categories: trisaturated (SSS) TAGs, disaturated-monounsaturated (SSU) TAGs, monosaturated-diunsaturated (SUU) TAGs, and triunsaturated (UUU). The VCO used was VCO obtained from one of the Pharmacies store in Medan, and PKO from the Oil Processing Plant. The differences in TAG composition between olein with iodine value not exceeding 60 and those above 60 are detailed in Table 3.3. The main type of saturated fat found in palm oil is palmitic acid… However, it is unique among vegetable oils because a significant amount of the saturated fatty acids (10 to 16%) are in the sn-2 position of its triglycerides. A comparison was made with high quality oil from Malaysia. [13][14], Resembling coconut oil, palm kernel oil is packed with myristic and lauric fatty acids and therefore suitable for the manufacture of soaps, washing powders and personal care products. Iodine Value (% I2absorbed) 22 Max. Palm kernel oil (or in moderate climate, palm kernel fat) solidifies between 20 and 24°C and is highly saturated (Fig. Palm Oil : Production, Processing, Characterization and Uses, AOCS Press, 2012 Palm tree breeding, palm kernel stearin HPKS35 – Hydrogenated palm kernel oil carotenes,,. 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