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egyptian race ethnicity


He asserts that in reconstructions of life in ancient Egypt, modern Egyptians would therefore be the most logical and closest approximation to the ancient Egyptians. XVII] a. d. Raum D. [Forsetzung von Bl. Terry Garcia, National Geographic's executive vice president for mission programs, said, in response to some of those protesting against the Tutankhamun reconstruction: The big variable is skin tone. [154] In more recent times, scholars such as Joyce Tyldesley, Sigrid Hodel-Hoenes, and Graciela Gestoso Singer, argued that her skin color is indicative of her role as a goddess of resurrection, since black is both the color of the fertile land of Egypt and that of Duat, the underworld. I'm Egyptian on my maternal side and have family in Alexandria where my mum born. [218][219][15] The descendants of Ham were traditionally considered to be the darkest-skinned branch of humanity, either because of their geographic allotment to Africa or because of the Curse of Ham. Egyptians also form smaller minorities in the countries that neighbour them, in particular Saudi Arabia and Libya where they are mostly temporary professionals and workers, as well as in other countries as immigrants, notably in the United States, Canada, Australia… American Journal of Physical Anthropology. In his funerary scroll, he is shown with dark brown skin instead of the conventional reddish brown used for Egyptians. Afrocentric: the ancient Egyptians were black Africans, displaced by later movements of peoples, for example the Macedonian, Roman and Arab conquests. "[15] However, "Napolean's scientists concluded that the Egyptians were Negroid." Few Bedouin are nomadic as they live in tents which makes it easier to migrate. Arabic is the official language spoken in Egypt. At the 1974 UNESCO conference, most participants concluded that the ancient Egyptian population was indigenous to the Nile Valley, and was made up of people from north and south of the Sahara who were differentiated by their color. [228] Grafton Elliot Smith modified the theory in 1911,[229] stating that the ancient Egyptians were a dark haired "brown race",[230] most closely "linked by the closest bonds of racial affinity to the Early Neolithic populations of the North African littoral and South Europe",[231] and not Negroid. I recently had to extract a couple of pages from a large PDF file. The Copts are the largest Christian group in Egypt, and have historically been perse… While Egypt was invaded during later dynastic periods, these had small to minimal genetic impact; Brace et al. Egypt was a subtropical desert environment and its people had migrated from various ethnic groups over its history (and prehistory), thus it was something of a "melting pot," a mixture of many types of people with many skin tones, some certainly from the Sub-Saharan … "[149] Singer also states a statuette of Ahmose-Nefertari at the Museo Egizio in Turin which shows her with a black face, though her arms and feet are not darkened, thus suggesting that the black coloring has an iconographic motive and does not reflect her actual appearance. Rogers called "World's Great Men of Color. ... Egyptian scientists recently sequenced his DNA. The black Cleopatra claim was further revived in an essay by afrocentrist John Henrik Clarke, chair of African history at Hunter College, entitled "African Warrior Queens. Professor Ampim has declared that plate 48 is a true reflection of the original painting, and that it "proves" that the ancient Egyptians were identical in appearance to the Nubians, even though he admits no other examples of the "Table of Nations" show this similarity. Frank Yurco, "An Egyptological Review", 1996, in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers, Prehistory and Protohsitory of Egypt, Emile Massoulard, 1949. [39] However, the study showed that comparative data from a contemporary population under Roman rule in Anatolia, did not reveal a closer relationship to the ancient Egyptians from the same period. This was based largely on the claims of Hilke Thür of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, who in the 1990s had examined a headless skeleton of a female child in a 20 BCE tomb in Ephesus (modern Turkey), together with the old notes and photographs of the now-missing skull. [39] The scientists said that obtaining well-preserved, uncontaminated DNA from mummies has been a problem for the field and that these samples provided "the first reliable data set obtained from ancient Egyptians using high-throughput DNA sequencing methods". Egyptians make 95% of Egypt’s population. Ampim nonetheless continues to claim that plate 48 shows accurately the images that stand on the walls of KV11, and he categorically accuses both Yurco and Hornung of perpetrating a deliberate deception for the purposes of misleading the public about the true race of the ancient Egyptians. "[105] When a DNA test attempted to determine the identity of the child, it was impossible to get an accurate reading since the bones had been handled too many times,[106] and the skull had been lost in Germany during World War II. Egypt is the second most populous country in the Middle East and the second-most populous on the African continent. On the other hand, there are the minorities such as the Berbers of Siwa oasis, Nubian of southern Nile, Bedouins, and Copts who make 5% of the entire population. "[11]:5–9, By the 20th century, the Asiatic race theory and its various offshoots were abandoned but were superseded by two related theories: the Eurocentric Hamitic hypothesis, asserting that a Caucasian racial group moved into North and East Africa from early prehistory subsequently bringing with them all advanced agriculture, technology and civilization, and the Dynastic race theory, proposing that Mesopotamian invaders were responsible for the dynastic civilization of Egypt (c. 3000 BC). "[12]:43 The arguments for all sides are recorded in the UNESCO publication General History of Africa,[23] with the "Origin of the Egyptians" chapter being written by the proponent of the black hypothesis Cheikh Anta Diop. ", The archaeologist Karl Richard Lepsius documented many ancient Egyptian tomb paintings in his work Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien. The Copts are the result of crossbreeding with all the nations that successfully dominated Egypt. Defining our identity is not an easy task. "[15] Foster said "throughout the Middle Ages and to the end of the eighteenth century, the Negro was seen by Europeans as a descendant of Ham. According to the firm, the microsatellite data suggested that Tutankhamun belonged to the haplogroup R1b1a2, the most common paternal clade among males in Western Europe. In more recent times some writers continued to challenge the mainstream view, some focusing on questioning the race of specific notable individuals such as the king represented in the Great Sphinx of Giza, native Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun, Egyptian Queen Tiye, and Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII. The first is to examine how (or whether) ancient cultures thought about ethnicity or race. As a result, ancient Egyptian artifacts provide sometimes conflicting and inconclusive evidence of the ethnicity of the people who lived in Egypt during dynastic times. "Ra-Hotep and Nofret: Modern Forgeries in the Cairo Museum?" modern Egyptian: the ancient Egyptians are the same group of people as the modern Egyptians. [179] There is dispute about the historical accuracy of the works of Herodotus – some scholars support the reliability of Herodotus[11]:2–5[180]:1[181][182][183][184] while other scholars regard his works as being unreliable as historical sources, particularly those relating to Egypt. 531; MacGaffey, 1966, pp. Egypt is in Africa. These categories are based on self-identification and are "not an attempt to define race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically," according to … Based on plentiful cultural evidence, Petrie concluded that the invading ruling elite was responsible for the seemingly sudden rise of Egyptian civilization. Talking about what race the Ancient Egyptians is a fascinatingly controversial topic that, even today, ignites angry passions. From Giovanni Battista Belzoni- Egyptian race portrayed in the Book of Gates.jpg 500 × 349; 85 KB. [22] Similarly, none of the participants voiced support for an earlier theory where Egyptians were "white with a dark, even black, pigmentation. Yurco added that "We are applying a racial divisiveness to Egypt that they would never have accepted, They would have considered this argument absurd, and that is something we could really learn from. [9][10] In another translation, Volney said the Sphinx gave him the key to the riddle, "seeing that head, typically negro in all its features",[11]:27 the Copts were "true negroes of the same stock as all the autochthonous peoples of Africa" and they "after some centuries of mixing..., must have lost the full blackness of its original color. [210][211][212][213][214][215][216][217], At the UNESCO "Symposium on the Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meroitic script" in Cairo in 1974, there was consensus that Ancient Egypt was indigenous to Africa, but the Black Hypothesis met with "profound" disagreement. As a result of this, the race/ethnicity of Ancient Egypt was highly mixed. Maybe Not", "Afrocentric View Distorts History and Achievement by Blacks", "Also in the news | Cleopatra's mother 'was African, "Phrenology and "Scientific Racism" in the 19th Century", "Have Bones of Cleopatra's Murdered Sister Been Found? An early description of the Sphinx, "typically negro in all its features", is recorded in the travel notes of a French scholar, Volney, who visited in Egypt between 1783 and 1785[110] along with French novelist Gustave Flaubert. [5] Within Egyptian history, despite multiple foreign invasions, the demographics were not shifted by large migrations. Moreover, "Most scholars believe that Egyptians in antiquity looked pretty much as they look today, with a gradation of darker shades toward the Sudan". [40], A shared drift and mixture analysis of the DNA of these ancient Egyptian mummies shows that the connection is strongest with ancient populations from the Levant, the Near East and Anatolia, and to a lesser extent modern populations from the Near East and the Levant. [185][186][187][188][189][190][191][192][193][194][195], Other claims used to support the Black Hypothesis included testing melanin levels in a small sample of mummies,[12]:20,37[11]:236–243 language affinities between ancient Egyptian language and sub-saharan languages,[12]:28,39–41,54–55[196] interpretations of the origin of the name Kmt, conventionally pronounced Kemet, used by the ancient Egyptians to describe themselves or their land (depending on points of view),[12]:27,38,40 biblical traditions,[197][12]:27–28 shared B blood group between Egyptians and West Africans,[12]:37 and interpretations of the depictions of the Egyptians in numerous paintings and statues. The former can be accomplished with Adobe Acrobat Reader (free) or the full. Hoda Kotb Ethnicity, Race and Nationality fajar — January 11, 2018 in Anchor • add comment Everybody must agree that Hoda Kotb is most experienced journalists and anchors in America. The reason Black Egyptology idiots hate the notion of race in Egypt so much is because the ancient Egyptians were about 9% Black, just like the Egyptians of today. Still, race and ethnicity have multiple ways they can affect our identities. Despite these efforts, the population in the countryside keeps on decreasing as most people migrate to big towns looking for employment and better living standards. "[28][29], Barbara Mertz writes in Red Land, Black Land: Daily Life in Ancient Egypt: "Egyptian civilization was not Mediterranean or African, Semitic or Hamitic, black or white, but all of them. ", "It is ironic that today much of Afrocentric writing about Egypt is based on the same evidence used by earlier Heliocentric authors. Also, race is easily determined by an examination of the bones, particularly the skull. 207–212 in Egypt: Child of Africa (1994), edited by Ivan Van Sertima. study is best seen as a contribution to understanding a local population history in northern Egypt as opposed to a population history of all Egypt from its inception. The current standards were published in 1997. Modern scholars who have studied ancient Egyptian culture and population history have responded to the controversy over the race of the ancient Egyptians in different ways. "Who were the ancient Egyptians? Aboubacry Moussa Lam, "L'Égypte ancienne et l'Afrique", in Maria R. Turano et Paul Vandepitte. [222] It was proposed in 1844 by Samuel George Morton, who acknowledged that Negroes were present in ancient Egypt but claimed they were either captives or servants. The Turanid race hypothesis, which has been rejected by mainstream scholarship, is the hypothesis that the ancient Egyptians belonged to the Turanid race, linking them to the Tatars. "[32], Frank J. Yurco, an Egyptologist at the Field Museum and the University of Chicago, said: "When you talk about Egypt, it's just not right to talk about black or white, That's all just American terminology and it serves American purposes. Real Egyptians before being conquered by outside forces were not mixed, not Arabs, not Caucasians. [139][140], Ampim has a specific concern about the painting of the "Table of Nations" in the Tomb of Ramesses III (KV11). He did not offer any explanation for these colors, but noted that her probable ancestry ruled out that she might have had black blood. Ampim repeatedly makes the accusation that the Egyptian authorities are systematically destroying evidence that "proves" that the ancient Egyptians were black, under the guise of renovating and conserving the applicable temples and structures. [220][15] Thus, Diop cites Gaston Maspero "Moreover, the Bible states that Mesraim, son of Ham, brother of Chus (Kush) ... and of Canaan, came from Mesopotamia to settle with his children on the banks of the Nile. Furthermore, craniometry as used by Thür to determine race is based in scientific racism that is now generally considered a pseudoscience that supported "exploitation of groups of people" to "perpetuate racial oppression" and "distorted future views of the biological basis of race. Seligman, "Some Aspects of the Hamitic Problem in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan". Of its population of 93 million people, about 95% stay along river Nile banks and the Nile delta. [25][26] Stuart Tyson Smith writes in the 2001 Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, "Any characterization of race of the ancient Egyptians depends on modern cultural definitions, not on scientific study. [60]:85–88 [61][62][63]. [38], The study was able to measure the mitochondrial DNA of 90 individuals, and it showed that the mitochondrial DNA composition of Egyptian mummies has shown a high level of affinity with the DNA of the populations of the Near East. Bagnall, R.S. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021, The Geography Of Egypt: The Climate And The Natural Regions Of Egypt, Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US, The 10 Biggest Shopping Malls In The World. Frank Yurco, "Two Tomb-Wall Painted Reliefs of Ramesses III and Sety I and Ancient Nile Valley Population Diversity", in. Race is a notoriously nebulous concept. [11]:1,27,43,51[163] Although there is consensus that Ancient Egypt was indigenous to Africa, the hypothesis that Ancient Egypt was a "black civilization" has met with "profound" disagreement. 2 im K. Museum zu Berlin. [135] Also, Snowden indicates that Romans had accurate knowledge of "negroes of a red, copper-colored complexion ... among African tribes". "[14], Foster summarized the early 19th century "controversy over the ethnicity of the ancient Egyptians" as a debate of conflicting theories regarding the Hamites. "[16] The arguments regarding the race of the Egyptians became more explicitly tied to the debate over slavery in the United States, as tensions escalated towards the American Civil War. Egyptians speak the modern Egyptian Arabic. But based on history and DNA sampling of modern Egyptians most concluded that they came from Northern Africa. "[19] In the early 20th century, Flinders Petrie, a professor of Egyptology at the University of London, in turn spoke of "a black queen",[20] Ahmose-Nefertari, who was the "divine ancestress of the XVIIIth dynasty". The Romans, Greeks,, Arabs and Africans all migrated to Egypt. These help answer people's questions about ethnicity, race, and the overall origins of the … The mixing of ancient Egyptians and Africans from further south means that modern Egyptians can trace 8% more of their ancestry to sub-Saharan Africans than can … However, now the claim is that ancient Egypt was a black African civilization and that Egyptians (or at least the rulers and the cultural leaders) were negroid (Diop, 1974, 1981; Williams, 1974), No one disputes that Egypt is in Africa, or that its civilization had elements in common with sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in religion. people live in three major regions of the country: Cairo and Alexandria and elsewhere along the banks of the Nile; throughout the Nile delta, which fans out north of Cairo; and along the Suez Canal. Most scholars believe that Egyptians in antiquity looked pretty much as they look today, with a gradation of darker shades toward the Sudan". [122] He compares it to the claim that Olmec colossal heads had "African origins", which is not taken seriously by Mesoamerican scholars such as Richard Diehl and Ann Cyphers. Bab el Meluk [Bîbân el-Mulûk]. Mainstream scholars reject the notion that Egypt was a white or black civilization; they maintain that, despite the phenotypic diversity of Ancient and present-day Egyptians, applying modern notions of black or white races to ancient Egypt is anachronistic. "[81][82] Lefkowitz refutes Rogers' hypothesis, on various scholarly grounds. ? [118][119] but he was described by others such as Ronald H. Fritze and Mark Lehner of being a "pseudoscientific writer". [164], The Black Egyptian hypothesis includes a particular focus on links to Sub Saharan cultures and the questioning of the race of specific notable individuals from Dynastic times, including Tutankhamun[165] the person represented in the Great Sphinx of Giza,[11]:1,27,43,51[166][167] and the Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra. [31] Nicky Nielsen wrote in Egyptomaniacs: How We Became Obsessed with Ancient Egypt that "Ancient Egypt was neither black nor white, and the repeated attempt by advocates of either ideology to seize the ownership of ancient Egypt simply perpetuates an old tradition: one of removing agency and control of their heritage from the modern population living along the banks of the Nile. [160][161][162] The current position of modern scholarship is that the Egyptian civilization was an indigenous Nile Valley development (see population history of Egypt). doi:10.1002/ajpa.20261. They state the study is missing 3000 years of Ancient Egypt's history, fails to include indigenous Nile valley Nubians as a comparison group, only includes New Kingdom and newer Northern Egyptian individuals, and incorrectly classifies "all mitochondrial M1 haplogroups as "Asian" which is problematic. [15] Finally, Foster concludes, "it was at this point that Egypt became the focus of much scientific and lay interest, the result of which was the appearance of many publications whose sole purpose was to prove that the Egyptians were not Black, and therefore capable of developing such a high civilization. Select from premium Egyptian Ethnicity of the highest quality. [221], At the UNESCO "Symposium on the Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script" in Cairo in 1974, none of the participants explicitly voiced support for any theory where Egyptians were Caucasian with a dark pigmentation.". It asserted that these people were Caucasians, not Negroid. The debate, therefore, takes place mainly in the public sphere and tends to focus on a small number of specific issues. [34], Barry J. Kemp argues that the black/white argument, though politically understandable, is an oversimplification that hinders an appropriate evaluation of the scientific data on the ancient Egyptians since it does not take into consideration the difficulty in ascertaining complexion from skeletal remains. World's Great Men of Color, Volume I, By J.A. "[224], The similar Hamitic hypothesis, which has been rejected by mainstream scholarship, developed directly from the Asiatic Race Theory, and argued that the Ethiopid and Arabid populations of the Horn of Africa were the inventors of agriculture and had brought all civilization to Africa. All posts tagged: egyptian race ethnicity. Born in Alexandra in 69BC into a Macedonian Greek dynasty that ruled Egypt for three centuries, Cleopatra ascended to the throne at the age of 17. [225] Charles Gabriel Seligman in his Some Aspects of the Hamitic Problem in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1913) and later works argued that the ancient Egyptians were among this group of Caucasian Hamites, having arrived in the Nile Valley during early prehistory and introduced technology and agriculture to primitive natives they found there. Women were depicted as lighter in complexion,[138] perhaps because they didn’t spend so much time out of doors. It was proposed by Egyptologist Samuel Sharpe in 1846, who was "inspired" by some ancient Egyptian paintings, which depict Egyptians with sallow or yellowish skin. pp. You may identify with a different ethnicity than your race, nevertheless race and ethnicity are frequently conflated. Wallis Budge)[141] "The first are RETH, the second are AAMU, the third are NEHESU, and the fourth are THEMEHU. Today the issues regarding the race of the ancient Egyptians are "troubled waters which most people who write about ancient Egypt from within the mainstream of scholarship avoid." It's not just a question on modern relations or insensitive Hollywood casting as much as it is about Egypt's complex history with its own very long past . By far the largest ethnic group in Egypt are the Egyptians, which refers to both an ethnic group and a nationality. [155]:90[156][149], Queen Tiye is another example of the controversy. Where did the Egyptians come from: Does the Bible get it right again? New York: Routledge. "[137] He continues, "There is an extraordinary abundance of Egyptian works of art which clearly depicted sharply contrasted reddish-brown Egyptians and black Nubians. Race- and ethnicity-based oppression, persecution, and exploitation simply did not exist. [146], The late British Africanist Basil Davidson stated "Whether the Ancient Egyptians were as black or as brown in skin color as other Africans may remain an issue of emotive dispute; probably, they were both. Media in category "Ancient Egyptian ethnicity" The following 10 files are in this category, out of 10 total. Susan Walker (ed.). It has some of the oldest civilizations in the world and the most iconic sites on earth such as the pyramids. From the tomb of Seti I. 10 Intriguing Clues About Ancient Egyptian Ethnicity. [125] Diop,[126] William Leo Hansberry,[126] and Aboubacry Moussa Lam[127] have argued that kmt was derived from the skin color of the Nile valley people, which Diop claimed was black. Been a while since my last visit and do miss my family there and the country itself a great deal. If I can give some advice though, try to put as FEW titles on yourself as you possibly can, you'll have strangers and people in your lives doing plenty of … Egyptians make 95% of Egypt’s population. According to Sergi, the Mediterranean race or "Eurafrican" contains three varieties or sub-races: the African (Hamitic) branch, the Mediterranean "proper" branch and the Nordic (depigmented) branch. One early example of such an attempt was an article published in The New-England Magazine of October 1833, where the authors dispute a claim that "Herodotus was given as authority for their being negroes." Ancient Egyptian Race Debate Talking about what race the Ancient Egyptians is a fascinatingly controversial topic that, even today, ignites angry passions. [131], Ancient Egyptian tombs and temples contained thousands of paintings, sculptures, and written works, which reveal a great deal about the people of that time. "[96] Roller notes that "there is absolutely no evidence" that Cleopatra was racially black African as claimed by what he dismisses as generally not "credible scholarly sources. [204][205][206][207][208][209] Authors and critics state the hypothesis is primarily adopted by Afrocentrists. There are some Christians in Egypt, though, known as the Copts. "[147] Yaacov Shavit wrote that "Egyptian men have a reddish complexion, while Egyptian women have a clear yellowish cast; and moreover there are almost no black women in the many wall paintings. Mary Beard states that the age of the skeleton is too young to be that of Arsinoe (the bones said to be that of a 15–18-year-old child, with Arsinoe being around her mid twenties at her death).[107]. The question of the race of ancient Egyptians was raised historically as a product of the early racial concepts of the 18th and 19th centuries, and was linked to models of racial hierarchy primarily based on craniometry and anthropometry. This case, we know today, had a range of skin tones, from light to.... Depicted as lighter in complexion, [ 138 ] perhaps because they identify as people of Arabian Peninsula where the. Group they belong to, right? and speak the Berber language which is family... Enough because they didn ’ t spend so much time out of doors in. Today, had a range of skin tones, from light to dark the Middle East the! Equivalent with Sergi 's Mediterranean race believe that the Egyptians language is popular during church,... To migrate Egypt are the largest Christian group in Egypt as a whole controversial topic that, even today ignites... The identity of the actual paintings time out of doors scattered in the world and the iconic. Debate has surrounded the Ancient Egyptians is a sign of Nubian ancestry during prayers and hymns origin. ).png 426 × 315 ; 229 KB theory was conceived by European scholars to Egypt. They live in tents which makes it easier to migrate ethnicity ” in the world: Syrian,,... Merge, split, rotate and extract pages from a very early date in their surviving art literature... The public sphere and tends to focus on a small number of specific issues women still traditionally! Is another example of the old race Diop described Ahmose-Nefertari as `` black woolly... The residents also inhibit the Suez Canal and North of Cairo Der el [! 'This is midrange. provide insight into your deep ancestry, however any ethnicity results must objectively! Copts are the largest ethnic group in Egypt are the Egyptians and source... Sergi 's Mediterranean race 's sister write-in doesn ’ t spend so time... Suggestions under white Nofret: modern Forgeries in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan '' ignites angry passions [ 12:21,26! Successfully extracted from three of these theories proposes that Caucasians were the indigenous inhabitants of Egypt, argue... Was last edited on 30 December 2020, At the UNESCO Symposium in 1974, Diop Ahmose-Nefertari.: Der el Medînet [ Dayr al-Madînah Site ]: Stuckbild aus Grab 10 of 's! Shomarka Keita: `` the Geographical Origins and population Relationships of early Ancient Egyptians had black skin has become cornerstone! Has further accused `` Euro-American writers '' of attempting to mislead the public this! Of the population Felicity Barringer, and Egyptian:85–88 [ 61 ] [ 149 ], Ahmose-Nefertari an! The second most populous country in Africa after Ethiopia and Nigeria, selected! The archaeologist Karl Richard Lepsius documented many Ancient Egyptian civilization is evidently and. Of race in the cities ethnicity come into question when talking about culture because the culture practice. Exploitation simply did not exist, Edith R. Sanders on my maternal side and have historically been perse… all tagged... A whole media in category `` Ancient Egyptian art by: west the Ancient Egyp- were! Them the principal features of the highest quality experts have argued that neither skull shapes nor nasal openings a. Children wear modern clothing, the Hamites, who developed the civilization of Egypt that King Tutankhamun, his,. Et Paul Vandepitte 2020, At the UNESCO Symposium in 1974, Diop described Ahmose-Nefertari as `` Negroid. Century, Constantin François de Chassebœuf, comte de Volney, wrote about the history of in! Be objectively defined so that accurate measurements of variables can be made mystery as to the origin of the and!

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